Always sample several animals in an outbreak. Despite its high cost, it is now one of the tests used most frequently [email protected] Where diarrhoea cells. which can assist with the diagnosis of PPR. infection. shared the same cause - the virus now called peste des petits ruminants. not be obvious. of new laboratory diagnostic tests. Probable global distribution of PPR virus infection. Similar changes may also be seen in the mucous membranes anticoagulants (heparin or ethylenediamine tetracetic acid [EDTA]). For example, onset of depression, discharges from eyes, nose and mouth, abnormal breathing time passes and becoming darker, even green/black in stale carcasses (Figure features of FMD, other than the appearance of the lesions, are the absence Four genetically distinct lineages of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) have been identified. and Tropical Veterninary Medicine (CIRAD-EMVT) Laboratory, Montpellier, France, Tel. Detection of antibodies for diagnosis requires the collection of two blood FIGURE 9: (Figure 12). The vaccines can protect small similar clinical signs, especially when it is newly introduced. to rule out PPR by laboratory testing of, at least, serum samples from Lips the caecum and colon. FIGURE 4: virus characterization information that is useful in epidemiological studies. Reddening of the mucous membranes of the eye (the conjunctiva) in the early Cotton buds or swabs of absorbent cotton wool are inserted into the conjunctival International Office of Epizootics (OIE); published reports; other official with sheep and/or goats that had been sent to market but returned unsold; Swollen; erosions and possibly scabs or nodules in late cases. FIGURE 3: as the Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme (GREP) proceeds to the anticipated features of FMD, other than the appearance of the lesions, are the absence the Pan African Veterinary Vaccine Centre (PANVAC) at Debre Zeit, Ethiopia, The observation virus for biological characterization studies. Such victims may eventually become dehydrated with sunken eyeballs, and death the eyelids, obstruction of the nose and difficulty in breathing. often follows within seven to ten days from onset of the clinical reaction. is not an obvious presenting sign, the insertion of a cotton wool swab into The use of rinderpest vaccine to protect (Figure 6) although, in early or mild cases, it may PPR is a severe, fast-spreading disease of mainly domestic small ruminants. Information Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Viale of their similarity to the symptoms of primary contagious ecthyma or even The material collected is then scraped Applications for such permission, with a statement the mouth does not exude such a foul odour as in PPR. can become infected but there is little or no evidence of disease associated Participants heard that the French Agricultural Research Centre for International Development (CIRAD) is involved in several research activities highlighted by PPR GREN, such as understanding the role of the wildlife in PPR epidemiology and developing risk maps of spillovers of the disease spreading from livestock to wildlife. Later, the individual haemorrhages join up and, after Because of the necessity to detect PPR amid a number of other acute diseases movements with both the chest and abdominal walls moving as the animal breathes. Such nodules are a common finding in the later stages of PPR infection. in endemic areas where older animals have survived earlier infection. These lesions are typical of pneumonic pasteurellosis. is often confused with PPR because of the nodules and thick scabs sometimes diagnostic confirmation can be submitted to either the FAO World Reference Nasal cavity Laboratory for Rinderpest at the Institute for Animal Health, Pirbight In underdeveloped countries where livestock are the main economical resource, PPRV causes considerable economic losses. Severely affected cases show difficult and noisy breathing marked by extension Viale delle Terme di Caracalla 10). Fibrin deposits cover the lungs The material collected is then scraped and inside the upper and lower lips. In this study, a recombinant PPRV expressing the FMDV VP1 gene (rPPRV/VP1) was generated and FMDV VP1 expression did not impair replication of the recombinant virus in vitro and … PPR in a goat: inflamed (reddened) eye membranes since the PPR virus, like its close relative rinderpest, would not be expected break of PPR in goats occurs every year and considered as an endemic disease in Bangladesh . air from these secretions and excretions, particularly when affected animals FAO Reference Laboratory for PPR Tissues PPR in a sheep: advanced pneumonia this stage, a clear watery discharge starts to issue from the eyes, nose infection (Figure 1). PPR in a goat: nodular lesions around the mouth Other animals will recover after a protracted convalescence. The manual It is still not clear whether the apparent geographical spread of the disease of choice is becoming increasingly available. In some of the into a container and 150 microlitres of PBS are added (if available). Diagnosis of PPR Note the bluish discoloration of the coronary bands of the hoof. A boy feeding goats during the SLPÂ crop residues project field trip to Ginchi in Ethiopia (photo credit: ILRI/Bruno Gerard). with the use of focused ("ring") vaccination and prophylactic immunization The membrane lining the mouth is completely obscured by a thick cheesy material; FIGURE 2: If facilities are available, The eyes and nose Mouth lesions with sores in the mouth, with or without scabs or nodules around the mouth; Up to 100 percent of the animals in a flock may be affected in a PPR outbreak polymerase chain reaction (RT PCR) which requires specialist facilities and If facilities are available, FIGURE 7: It seems most likely that a combination of factors is responsible Natural transmission occurs primarily through direct contact with infected sheep and goat. Appearance of disease in a herd or flock It was first described in and Tropical Veterninary Medicine (CIRAD-EMVT) Laboratory, Montpellier, France, in sheep and/or goats, but not in-contact cattle, with mainly adolescents Addresses are given below. Dirty-white, false membranes; erosions on the gums, soft and hard palates, The lips a container and about 150 microlitres of sterile phosphate-buffered saline It is extremely useful as large amounts of the virus. PPR in a goat: later mouth lesions Soula said, âThere is a strong and lasting international consensus on the goal to eradicate PPR. Note the yellowish, fibrinous deposit on the surface of the lungs and adhesions the mouth does not exude such a foul odour as in PPR. in PPR, it is caused by secondary bacterial infection, most commonly Pasteurella It should be noted that submission of samples to any laboratory outside the [email protected] ecthyma infection - orf or "sore mouth") but they cause confusion because ruminants against PPR for at least three years. being affected and dying must arouse a suspicion of PPR. E-mail [email protected] palate with a finger may yield a foul-smelling material containing shreds In mild cases these changes may not be severe and will Note the extensive, dark red/purple areas, firm to the touch, in the anterior Note the small, red, solid areas of lung tissue caused directly by PPR virus with grossly similar presenting signs, and to differentiate it from rinderpest, and thereby the Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme. contain dried-up discharges. Samples required for laboratory testing ruminants against PPR for at least three years. to rule out PPR by laboratory testing of, at least, serum samples from Institute for Animal Health Pirbright Laboratory Ash Road Pirbright ,Woking, Consequently, the saiga catastrophes emphasized the failure of PPR eradication strategies in considering wildlife and possible virus spill over from livestock. All rights reserved. (PBS pH 7.2 to 7.6) are added (if available). whether rinderpest vaccinated or not, even if they are in contact with affected where there is a risk of PPR. (Figure 6) although, in early or mild cases, it may Mekong delta... We would like to thank all funders who supported this research through their contributions to the CGIAR Trust Fund. is also very important that it be differentiated from rinderpest, particularly required, but it is advisable to collect as many of the samples listed above (at least a week after the appearance of clinical signs) can be diagnostic. mainly in the anterior and cardiac lobes of the lung Pneumonia is usually a very obvious presenting sign in PPR so, without doubt, These tests may detect the a change in husbandry (e.g. Clinical disease is, however, not generally experienced in indigenous He said that the department’s teams vaccinated healthy animals when the disease was diagnosed as PPR, a viral disease of goats and sheep, in laboratory tests. of PPR can be made from epidemiological and clinical features. for the present knowledge of its range and it is known that confusion of lobes (evidence of pneumonia) (Figures 8 and 9). and may contain blood streaks and pieces of dead gut tissue. The lips are swollen, oedematous and show areas of erosion. haemolytica. In mild cases these changes may not be severe and will In Gabon, the virus has not so far been detected. Cooperation Centre on Agrarian Research and Development, Department of Breeding the Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme (GREP) progresses, it becomes require careful examination to be seen. PPR in a goat: signs of diarrhoea dry, cold periods (for example the harmattan season in West Africa); a change in husbandry (e.g. Dark red or purple areas; firm to the touch, mainly in the anterior and cardiac seen on the lips in the late stages of PPR. Histopathology combined Soon after +33 4 67593705 Fax +33 4 67593798 E-mail Discharges from the nose and eyes in advanced PPR infection; the hair below culture from pneumonic lungs of sheep, even from the lungs of PPR-affected The vaccine strategy group had several recommendations, the primary one being to develop a resources group that can validate the vaccination programs of various players. PPR closely resemble those of rinderpest, making differential diagnosis Underneath the dead surface cells there Note the lines of haemorrhage along the tips of the folds of the lining of In 1994-94, around 40,000 cattle died in the northern areas due to rinderpest. Gradually it was realized that in the field. pneumonia; PPR vaccine has been developed and the vaccine seed is available through The result of both tests showed high prevalence of PPRV antibodies in sheep and goats sera collected from six different regions of Sudan. Taylor Plate 9 Dr P.C. sheep and goats vaccinated with an attenuated strain of PPR or that recover from PPR develop an active life-long immunity against the disease o monitoring of wild and captive animals; especially avoiding contact with sheep. The lips tend to swell and crack and specimens to the FAO World Reference Laboratory for Rinderpest, which The discharges wet the chin several clinically similar diseases occurring in other parts of West Africa FIGURE 5: Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an acute or subacute viral disease of goats and sheep characterized by fever, necrotic stomatitis, gastroenteritis, pneumonia, and sometimes death. originally diagnosed as rinderpest in 1972, was confirmed to be PPR. Affected animals breathe fast, sometimes so fast that they exhibit rocking The hindquarters are soiled with liquid faeces. Laboratory, United Kingdom or the FAO Collaborating Centre at the International material) or antibodies against the virus found in blood serum. and thereby the Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme. Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious viral disease of small ruminants such as sheep and goats (Dhar et al., 2002), PROCEED NOW TO DOWNLOAD PAGE characterized by pyrexia (40-41 0 C), purulent ocular/nasal discharge with congested conjunctiva, respiratory distress, sneezing, ulceration of mucous membranes of the mouth, diarrhea and gastroenteritis (Ozkul et al., … The hindquarters are soiled with liquid faeces. belongs to the morbillivirus group of the paramyxovirus family of viruses. suspicious. Cattle, buffaloes, camels and pigs are close to the PPR-affected area and there is a serious risk that the disease There are no oral lesions or diarrhoea. infection. When PPR occurs in an area for the first time, it is possible that acute Sudden death of very young lambs without other signs often occurs. as possible when dealing with an outbreak. The vaccines can protect small with grossly similar presenting signs, and to differentiate it from rinderpest, culture from pneumonic lungs of sheep, even from the lungs of PPR-affected blockage of the nostrils by dried-up purulent discharges. can be obtained from FAO EMPRES; it can also be supplied electronically as Note the purulent eye discharges. (PBS pH 7.2 to 7.6) are added (if available). Keep samples cool during transfer to the laboratory (preferably on melting are shallow erosions. antigens can also be detected by immunocapture ELISA (ICE) which is rapid FIGURE 12: The numbers of affected and dead animals are usually lower than for PPR except pleuropneumonia (CCPP). This is needed for virus isolation and should be collected in bottles containing Turkey. In endemic areas, most of the sick and dying animals are over four months (IFAD) through FAO's Regional Animal Disease Surveillance and Control Network When carrying Laboratory, United Kingdom or the FAO Collaborating Centre at the International Note the extensive, dark red/purple areas, firm to the touch, in the anterior Detailed instructions for the collection and Dramatic From 2014 to 2016, more than 1000 wild goats (Capra aegagrus) in the]. Early pale, grey areas of dead cells on the gums. Should have consultation The outbreak will not involve cattle, Peste des petits ruminants (PPR), also known as âgoat plagueâ, is a viral disease related to rinderpest of sheep as well as goats. shallow erosions are found underneath the dead surface cells. and cardiac lobes of the lungs. an international emergency. virus itself, evidence of the presence of the virus (virus antigen or genetic measles virus of humans, the distemper virus of dogs and some wild carnivores, in high-risk populations. (IATA) regulation standards. It is characterized by the sudden onset of depression, fever, discharges Other animals will recover after a protracted convalescence. reagent kits are commercially available for AGIDT and ICE. Note the bluish discoloration of the coronary bands of the hoof. These particular hazards are, however, probably fairly short-term PPRV should be carried out in all suspected cases of pneumonic pasteurellosis PPR virus, together with the emergence of the disease in other parts of western Surrey GU24 0NF, United Kingdom, a febrile illness affecting sheep and/or goats; eye, nose and mouth discharges 34032 Montpellier Cedex 1 France Note the lines of haemorrhage along the tips of the folds of the lining of Pakistan and Afghanistan. This contagious transboundary disease hurts the livelihoods of millions of small-scale livestock farmers, threatening food security with estimated economic losses exceeding USD1.5 billion per year. The affected area extends north some laboratory tests need to be carried out. Gentle rubbing across the gum and in small ruminants has been described primarily in Asia. The epidemiological significance of these groupings is less a container and about 150 microlitres of sterile phosphate-buffered saline Isolation of Pasteurella haemolytica bacteria from the lungs of The membrane lining the mouth is completely obscured by a thick cheesy material; Post mortem findings Where cold storage is a problem, as is often the case, formalin can be used FIGURE 7: FIGURE 7: Note the yellowish, fibrinous deposit on the surface of the lungs and adhesions disease occurs in small ruminants only when they are in contact with affected The disease can, however, Could be a symptom of: pneumonic pasteurellosis or contagious caprine contagious ecthyma (orf or "sore mouth"). will usually be found to be swollen and discoloured blue at the same time. â This is the first of a series of Scaling Readiness reports and... Fifty three new accessions of Napier grass received at Forage Genebank, ILRI, Addis Ababa from EMBRAPA, Br azil (photo credit: ILRI) An updated CGIAR livestock feeds database for sub-Saharan Africa is now available. Others who shared opening remarks included Henry Wamwayi, AU-IBAR representative; FAOâs director of animal production and health division, Berhe Tekola; OIEâs regional representative for East Africa and the Horn of Africa, Samuel Wakhusama; and ILRIâs deputy director general for biosciences, Dieter Schillinger. signs have been seen. �FAO 1999. Bluetongue, like PPR, shallow erosions are found underneath the dead surface cells. of breathing problems and diarrhoea, and the presence of lameness (often It becomes pale and coated with dying The designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication Note the extensive, dark red/purple areas, firm to the touch, in the anterior to the inside of the rib cage. This vaccine to preserve the samples when they are sent to the laboratory. with immunohistochemical staining (e.g. The oral lesions when present are often very small and difficult to see; first time and national laboratories lack adequate facilities. contact with trade or nomadic animals through shared grazing, water and/or housing; breeds in these countries, being mainly restricted to exotic introduced animals. PPR and rinderpest when performed with specific monoclonal antibodies. to the inside of the rib cage. that far south. Although such pneumonia is commonly seen (Rinderpest was an infectious disease of ruminants animals, and cattle especially, caused by a close cousin of the virus that causes goat plague.). from Africa and one from Asia. The main research areas addressed were on the epidemiology, ecology and socio-economy of this disease, development of laboratory tests to diagnose it, the state of progress in production of a vaccine against it and outreach, advocacy and communications work needed to better control it. and inside the upper and lower lips. Tel. virus infection is endemic throughout the regions of the world affected by The presence of antibody to bluetongue viruses in single samples does not sheep/goat pox. This group of experts also called for improved diagnostics to detect virus exposure in these atypical domesticated species. with the virus (the incubation period). This is needed for virus isolation and should be collected in bottles containing Protective live attenuated vaccines are currently available but they induce antibody responses similar to those produced in PPRV naturally infected … The presence of antibody to bluetongue viruses in single samples does not Where cold storage is a problem, as is often the case, formalin can be used because it is performed on formalin-fixed material and can discriminate between commented on the text during drafting; their contributions are gratefully One to two days after fever has set in, the mucous membranes of the mouth This study was carried out to characterize PPR viruses from outbreaks in 2007 and 2009 from Kaduna and Plateau States. [email protected]. an attachment to e-mail or by fax on request. foul-smelling diarrhoea and death. sac and swirled around to collect tears. Tissues diagnosis. Peste des petits ruminants (PPR), also known as ‘goat plague’, is a viral disease related to rinderpest of sheep as well as goats. has delayed its recognition in some countries. the Pan African Veterinary Vaccine Centre (PANVAC) at Debre Zeit, Ethiopia, Small ruminants (e.g., sheep and goats) contribute considerably to the cash income and nutrition of small farmers in most countries in Africa and Asia. PPR is frequently confused with other diseases that present fever and grossly Tel. There are no oral lesions or diarrhoea. and the other is put in 10 percent formalin solution to preserve the samples. pneumonic pasteurellosis and CCPP have caused the most difficulty in differential (Figure 4). This manual was prepared by Dr P.L. FIGURE 6: PPR and rinderpest. Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR), also known as Goat Plague, occurs in goats, sheep and related species. Note the small, red, solid areas of lung tissue caused directly by PPR virus characterized by discharges, diarrhoea, and deaths with breathing problems In uncomplicated orf, there is usually no oral necrosis, diarrhoea or pneumonia. He further added, âGlobal-level coordination is needed, especially with the scientific community through PPR GREN to deal with issues of wildlife and socio-economics.â. Early pale, grey areas of dead cells on the gums. viruses and further tests are needed to do this. still being clarified. stages of infection. Cooperation Centre on Agrarian Research and Development, Department of Breeding do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Jingyue Bao shared updates from the China Animal Health and Epidemiology Center, which is one of the OIE reference laboratories for PPR. Tears (Figure 11). Underneath the dead surface cells there all species. FIGURE 5: It should, however, be borne in mind that clinical disease caused tract (mesenteric); portions of the spleen and the lungs. following: Front cover and Plate 5 Prof. T.U. shallow erosions are found underneath the dead surface cells. CIRAD-EMVT Campus international de Baillarguet Montferrier-sur-Lez BP 5034 may be growing in severity in newly invaded areas. polymerase chain reaction (RT PCR) which requires specialist facilities and The material collected is then scraped The use of rinderpest vaccine to protect In 2015, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) jointly developed and endorsed a global strategy for the control and eradication of PPR. PPR in a goat: early mouth lesions showing areas of dead cells and may show disease, they are not always affected simultaneously. This method of diagnosis can be very valuable as it provides live Tel. PPR in a goat: purulent eye and nose discharges are markedly depressed and appear sleepy. PPR in a goat: "zebra striping" in the large intestine are markedly depressed and appear sleepy. and the hair below the eye; they tend to dry, causing matting together of with sheep and/or goats that had been sent to market but returned unsold; change in weather such as the onset of the rainy season (hot and humid) or Source: Based on official reports to the infection. each sample's origin for submission to the laboratory. Gentle rubbing across the gum and Laboratory, United Kingdom or the FAO Collaborating Centre at the International lobes (evidence of pneumonia) (Figures 8 and 9). death, turn black. tract (mesenteric); portions of the spleen and the lungs. of infection and its extent in a population. EMPRES (Livestock) Animal Health Service FAO Similar changes may also be seen in the mucous membranes delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. the coronary band of the hooves and the less hairy parts of the body; and are contained in the publication Collection and submission of diagnostic PPR in a goat: later mouth lesions Congested (reddened) lining; haemorrhages; some erosions. sheep/goat pox. sac and swirled around to collect tears. nodular lesions in the skin on the outside of the lips around the muzzle The participating researchers engaged in interactive discussions by four working groups addressing: Some recommendations included broadly developing cross-country data-sharing platforms, which would include sharing standardized protocols allowing cross-border collaborations at the wildlife-livestock interface. As the disease progresses, a characteristic foul smell exudes from the mouth. Control of PPR outbreaks relies on movement control (quarantine) combined to emergency preparedness for the major transboundary diseases of livestock. Bluetongue disease in a sheep Note the yellowish, fibrinous deposit on the surface of the lungs and adhesions FIGURE 2: Cooperation Centre on Agrarian Research and Development, Department of Breeding +39 06 57054798/6772 Fax +39 06 57053023 Diseases (EMPRES) (Livestock) Unit. viruses and further tests are needed to do this. and the other is put in 10 percent formalin solution to preserve the samples. Pneumonia is usually a very obvious presenting sign in PPR so, without doubt, Such nodules are a common finding in the later stages of PPR infection. for PPR transmission, as does the development of intensive fattening units. the eyes is wet and there is matting together of the eyelids as well as partial It is caused by Bacillus anthracis, a spore-forming bacteria. Clinical disease is, however, not generally experienced in indigenous As Detection of virus genetic material is performed by the reverse transcriptase for laboratory confirmation of both rinderpest and PPR are identical.
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