automobile systems and subsystems

vehicles, they cost less and offer field weakening over a wider speed range. New focus and funding should be given to compressed-gas storage in order to meet near-term needs for hydrogen storage. 2009. f All targets must be achieved at end of life. The Partnership’s budget for electrochemical energy technologies has increased as the importance of PHEV battery development has increased. The attainment of the majority of the 2015 targets is still difficult to predict. Such a metric is indicative of technology that is in the marketplace today or is available for commercialization. The SOI gate driver was packaged for high-temperature application using solders. If the price of oil doubles, the cost of polyolefin will increase significantly, since polyolefin comes mostly from oil or perhaps natural gas. The ambient systems (the current and simplest configuration) are targeted for the early introduction of the vehicle test fleets. This characteristic necessitates some type of unloading and engaging device to permit gradual application of load to the engine after it has been started. It draws power from an alternator(AC) or dynamo(DC) which is coupled with the engine. All rights reserved. The analysis should be updated on a regular basis as the cost structures change as a result of process research breakthroughs and commercial developments. A peak engine efficiency of 45 percent has been achieved for a hydrogen-fueled ICE. FIGURE 3-8 Schematic of series drive configuration, typical fuel cell vehicle configurations. The output from the engine is available through a shaft. There are activities ongoing on packaging and integration that include the following: Delphi has worked with preferred suppliers to deliver improved silicon integrated gate bipolar transistors and diodes for Delphi’s novel packaging solution. In such cases, the DOE go/no-go decision-making process can be and is employed. In the nearer term, ambient physical storage provides a means for advancing the integrated hydrogen fuel cell system development and gaining experience while the materials storage approach is developed further. Learn about the working of different systems incorporated inside an automotive. Materials-based storage at the level required to meet all program targets is considered theoretically achievable, yet no material has been identified that meets all of the targets. However, the immature status of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel-cell stack technology (the technology under development for automobiles), coupled with the need for suitable subsystems (e.g., liquid-fuel processor, air-management system, etc. Data are shown for 350 and 700 bar (ca. When computed over 6 years using an 8 percent discount rate for future savings, the resulting net present value (NPV) for the redesign is $335. 2009a. Given the fact that the completion dates for the other three COEs and a number of independent projects fall within FY 2010, this COE will have a critical role in capturing the progress for a sustained activity during any transition period. In some instances the FY 2009 DOE budget reflects such recommendations, and the Partnership continued to be proactive in specific areas highlighted in the Phase 2 report. Overall, within this last period of activity and considering that the results available for assessments stem from 2001-2008 activities, much progress has been made in key areas. Available on the Web at . Thus, the Partnership is correctly focused on the development of these technologies while it continues to benchmark competing battery technologies and encourages research on higher-energy chemistries for BEV applications. The material and physical storage results to date (obtained in a short time) as well as the Hydrogen Storage Engineering COE are promising with respect to the attainment of the 2015 objectives. The organizational structure of the team’s activities involves memoranda of understanding (MOU) between companies and government laboratories, working group meetings, regular intergroup reviews, and an annual peer-reviewed research meeting. Furthermore, single-cell and short-stack tests at the laboratory scale have demonstrated (using accelerated test protocols) much longer run times (3M Company, 7,200 hours)8 that, if demonstrated in vehicles under realistic on-road conditions, would meet or exceed the goals of the Partnership. Early market applications will. pressing down on the car's brake. Chassis is a French term and was initially used to In the subsection below, Figures 3-6 through 3-10 show the major different configurations that apply to each. This program is half completed but has the following accomplishments: Design of a 30 kW continuous (55 kW peak) motor with a top speed of 14,000 rpm, a constant power speed range of 5:1, and an efficiency greater than 95 percent at 20 percent torque. The lithium nickelate system has the highest energy density, and the lithium iron phosphate is considered inherently safer than the other two systems. The fuel cell stack is composed of layers of catalyzed proton-conducting membranes and electrode assemblies (MEAs) that react supplied hydrogen fuel with oxygen from the air. The latest data show the following accomplishments: Motor design. In order to couple an engine running at high speed and a gear system running at low speed, we introduce a clutch which connects the engine and the gear non-rigidly. inherent trade-offs among the various requirements. 4.5 times higher per unit of volume of “fuel storage” and approximately 4 times higher per unit of mass of “fuel storage” than those of the HFCV. Federal Grant Number DE-ACO2-06CH11357. A recommendation from the Phase 2 report (NRC, 2008, p. 9) is as follows: Recommendation. The set of linkages in between the engine and the wheels constitute the drive train. 2009. Lithium-ion battery technologies hold promise of achieving the long-term goals of high power, energy, and other performance requirements for HEV and PHEV applications at lower anticipated costs than those for other battery systems. The autonomic nervous system consists of three subsystems: the sympathetic nervous system, the parasympathetic nervous system and the enteric nervous system. The. A Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center funding opportunity was announced (2008). The most popular type of engine is referred to as the Internal Combustion Engine. The operational range for LTC has been enhanced through active cylinder valve actuation and intake boosting. The lower catalyst loadings, although attractive from a cost perspective, introduce a greater risk of negatively impacting performance. work look promising, it is unclear if they will lead to significant improvements in stability, life, and cost. This is the focus of the Partnership’s advanced combustion and emission control (ACEC) technical team. Battery Chargers. The chassis electrical system includes items such as headlights and driver accessories. None of the approaches (neither material-based nor physical storage) meets the combined targets. The project has demonstrated a novel composite microstructure to minimize eddy current losses. Hydrogen storage has been an R&D priority for the DOE for less than a decade. El-Rafaie, A., and F. Johnson. Such an event resulted in the recall of millions of laptop computer batteries made by Sony in the 1990s. In 2009, the partnership changed direction and stepped up efforts to advance, in the shorter term, technologies for reducing petroleum use in combustion engines, including those using biofuels, as well as batteries that could be used in plug-in hybrid-electric or all electric vehicles. Recommendation 3-1. Several automobile companies have announced the intention to launch BEVs over the next few years, particularly with about 100 miles of driving range for city driving and for fleet usage. is aimed at understanding the fundamental changes that occur in ignition and emission-formation processes when different compounds, such as methyl esters that are found in biofuels, are used in the engine. The public-private partnership to develop vehicles that require less petroleum-based fuel and emit fewer greenhouse gases should continue to include fuel cells and other hydrogen technologies in its research and development portfolio. It should be noted that the cost is two to four times that of silicon. A down-select report is in preparation. FIGURE 3-2 Fuel cell budget, FY 2007 through FY 2009 (in millions of dollars per year). The long-range goals of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership—to transition to a transportation system that uses sustainable energy resources and produces minimal criteria or net carbon emissions on a life-cycle or source-to-wheels basis—are extremely ambitious. Although there are multiple approaches and engineering configurations under development by the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs; the automobile manufacturers), the burden of successfully accomplishing all advancements by any one organization is challenging, since much of the effort is high-risk and demands the assignment of critical resources. As noted in Chapter 1, in the United States the vehicle fleet turnover in recent years is estimated to be about 15 years.2 Consequently the turnover time for completely new vehicle architectures to achieve significant market penetration will be measured in multiple decades (Bandivadekar et al., 2008; Weiss et al., 2000). A particular subcomponent impacting the fuel cell cost and lifetime is the membrane and electrode assembly. This electrochemical couple also allows fast charging but at a reduced energy density because of a relatively low voltage. The concept for a scalable inverter is that it can easily be scaled to meet different power levels. Alane regeneration has been achieved by means of adduct (Brookhaven National Laboratory). The FY 2009 funding level for the ACEC technical team was $25.4 million, with the requested level for FY 2010 being $27 million: the funds appropriated for FY 2010 were $34 million. However, the amount of energy storage required is limited to about 10 percent of energy storage on the vehicle. Based on the above study, the outcome may be a penalty well over $500. A weight-reduction process known as mass decompounding can be utilized when brakes, suspension, and power train can be redesigned to gain secondary weight savings as a result of the primary weight savings made in the structure through the use of lightweight materials. 2009. The following is a compilation of these issues: System weight and volume: Too high for meeting the 300-mile range across a wide spectrum of vehicle platforms. “Direct Hydrogen PEMFC Manufacturing Cost Estimation for Automotive Applications.” Presentation at the DOE 2009 Annual Merit Review, May 21, Arlington, Virginia. Mass reduction is an important means of improving fuel economy. Importantly, the materials technical team has shown that major cost savings appear possible through the use of polyolefin for the feedstock in making carbon fibers.22 As with all lightweight materials applications, the trade-offs between cost and weight will need to be reevaluated as the price of oil changes. The work of the onboard hydrogen storage program is organized in four centers of excellence (COEs): the Chemical Hydrogen Storage COE, the Hydrogen Sorption COE, the Metal Hydrides COE, and the Hydrogen Storage Engineering COE (see Table 3-2 and Figure 3-3). Linking these subsystems together will be a multi-tier, segmented network designed to support real-time control without adding excessive cable weight to the car. The study clearly shows that the cost goals established are very aggressive, and it may be difficult to achieve them using the present chemistries. The team has not been able to confirm these estimates with public domain data. This chapter discusses the vehicle systems technology areas that the Partnership is addressing in its research and development (R&D) programs, which include the following: (1) advanced combustion, emission control, and fuels for ICEs; (2) fuel cells; (3) hydrogen storage on the vehicle; (4) electrochemical energy storage or technologies for storing electricity onboard a vehicle; (5) electrical propulsion systems; and (6) materials for reducing the weight of the vehicle. The work on a scalable inverter is a contract of $8.2 million ($4.952 million provided by the DOE and $3.258 million by the contractor) that runs from October 2007 through March 2011 (Taylor, 2009). Although it is not definitive that the 2015 targets are achievable by the year 2015, the promising results to date indicate that they could be. The amount of slip depends on the amount of pressure applied. Scalable Inverter. The Partnership and the VT program should now follow up by initiating a research program on improved processes for reducing cost and recovering useful materials from this effort. Power electronics also require capacitors and solders, and in some cases their temperature limits the operation of power electronics. answer choices . They should also conduct a study to determine the cost of recycling and the potential of savings from recycled materials. 2009c. The EERE hydrogen technology budget appropriation for hydrogen storage was $59.2 million in FY 2009, which was 36 percent above the FY 2008 appropriation ($43.5 million) for applied hydrogen storage research (see Table 3-3). This is achieved by damping of the vibrations that get transmitted to the chassis through the wheels. Besides the transmission and driving wheels, some subsystems include those that provide structure and support (frame), propulsion (engine), and guidance (steering wheel). The Hydrogen Storage Engineering COE is a timely use of resources and fits well with the other COEs. The Hydrogen Sorption COE has investigated 160 materials, and 35 percent are still in its inventory. Most basic subsystems would be body, chassis, powertrain, and U for network communications. In the hybrid, the energy source is the HC fuel; the hybridization allows more optimal use of the engine and vehicle power-train system. The electrical system on a modern automobile is tightly integrated with the engine, steering and suspension system. The management of a long-term/short-term joint portfolio should be given consideration. Since the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Phase 2 review of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership research program (NRC, 2008), changes in the country’s energy situation have occurred. The current status of promising hydrogen storage materials is shown in the composite Figure 3-4. FIGURE 3-6 Schematic of parallel drive configuration for a hybrid vehicle (similar in concept to the Honda Insight Mercedes S series). Current Candidate Hydrogen Storage Materials Under Investigation, Carbide-derived carbon microporous materials. The program also includes life-cycle issues, energy efficiencies, safety, and the environmental impact of the applied hydrogen storage technologies. The energy companies continue to be engaged, and the program of Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE), organized under the Coordinating Research Council (CRC), is supplying an important database on the impact of fuel characteristics on engine-emission processes and alternative combustion process facilitation. The power is produced from within the automobile, usually from a compact engine placed either in the front or rear. Battery resistance and temperature can be used to derive a reasonable approximation of the SOC during battery operation. Of 74 materials investigated to date, 40 have been selected for further work. Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text. Separately, efforts are underway by a Delphi-led team16 to develop a scalable inverter that is capable of being easily sized for a particular application. The program has been managed to balance resources—for example, to cut storage approaches without potential and to down-select approaches with the most potential. The announcement of the Hydrogen Storage Engineering COE (2009) was made. The combination of simple subsystems and modules results in a vehicle model with a minimum number of data and a very good run time performance. In all of these cases, the systems used can be distinguished by the architecture as well as by the size and power. Developments in this area, such as the soft magnetic material that Toyota uses in the boost converter in its power electronics, should be monitored (Nozawa et al., 2009). Because of thermal runaway observed in a substantial number of Li-ion batteries in consumer devices, such as cellular telephones and laptop computers, there are public concerns about the safety of Li-ion batteries in general. erative pulse power rating, calendar life as measured by accelerated testing, and increased cycle life. Compact and efficient motors and power electronics are essential to all four types of vehicles that the Partnership is working on, namely, HFCVs, HEVs, PHEVs, and BEVs. An automobile is the result of combined work of a number of systems. The PHEV architecture plays an important role in the design of the battery and how it stores energy from the grid, the gasoline engine, or from regeneration during braking. Onboard battery charging during regenerative braking affects the efficiency and cost of the motor. This tool is critical to integrating the new understanding of combustion and emission processes into a framework that allows it to be used to guide further research and identify fuel and engine operating conditions that will maximize reductions in fuel consumption over the entire operating range of the engine. b Based on laboratory results from 3M and not full-size modules. This understanding is being incorporated into detailed CFD simulations, which in turn accurately replicate the experimental results with minimum adjustable numerical tuning. Thus, the DOE should increase its focus on precompetitive R&D related to both the fuel cell stack and the balance of plant—the other components of the fuel cell system required for successful operation, such as controls, fuel storage, instrumentation, and so forth—to develop alternatives to the down-selected technologies. Two rotor and two stator concepts were developed and analyzed in detail. The underlying operations may be different in how the steering is achieved for a particular vehicle and it is not needed for a driver to understand the full details. Estimates that up to 30 percent of U.S. liquid HC energy could be displaced by domestically produced biofuels have appeared in the literature.4 A genetically modified alga has attracted attention as a way to enhance the recycling of power plant’s CO2 emissions into a viable transportation fuel.5 The prospect of enhanced electric storage capacity has spurred the interest in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Power electronics convert the dc from the source into an ac of variable voltage and variable frequency needed by the motors. c 2005 US$; includes off-board costs such as liquefaction, compression, regeneration, etc; based on H2 production cost of $2 to $3/gasoline gallon equivalent untaxed, independent of production pathway. Although induction motors are usually used as motors, they can also function as generators. The purpose of the steering rack is to the translate the rotational motion of the steering column into lateral, linear motion by means of a rack and pinion gear set. Steering is done with the help of a tie rod attached to both the wheels as shown in the figure below: The steering wheel is the only control that a driver of an automobile operates to maneuver the vehicle. Thus, the Partnership, through the VT program, is focused on the development of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries for HEVs. reader is referred to the presentations from the Partnership to the committee on the various technical areas: these can all be found in the project’s public access file, available through the National Academies Public Access Records Office. Tags: Question 4 . In addition, it continues to pursue research activities toward even-higher-energy batteries for BEV applications. In BEV applications the vehicles run on electricity only, and thus high-energy-density batteries are required. Recently Denso has exhibited SiC-based “power devices.”17. In light of the prior funding of this program as reported in this review period (2007-2009) and the advancements reported to the committee, at the time of this assessment the success of the program could have been put in jeopardy as a result. The polyolefin feedstock is a good example of what can be achieved. Information provided by the DOE to the committee, November 23, 2009. sintered magnets, they are much easier to manufacture into the complex shapes needed for brushless dc motors. There are various types of suspension systems in wide use in the automobile industry. However, the coordination of the program (targets) by the fuel cell technical team could be reevaluated in some areas, such as the following: The system being modeled by the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and used for costing efforts by the two cost contractors is not equivalent to the system expected to be under test for the 2010 goals assessment or the 2015 commercialization-readiness decision. Ammonia borane regeneration efficiency and yields have improved (COE on Chemical Hydrogen Storage). The FY 2010 EERE appropriation for hydrogen storage is $32.0 million. B. ody. The major systems of an automobile are the engine, fuel system, exhaust system, cooling system, lubrication system, electrical system, transmission, and the chassis. The electric propulsion system consisting of power electronics (combinations of a bi-directional dc (direct current)-dc converter, boost converter, and inverter) and one or more electrical machines is needed for HEVs, PHEVs, HFCVs, and BEVs, to provide traction to the wheels from the prime mover. Thus the development of the electrochemical couple of lithium manganese oxide spinel cathode and nano-titanium oxide anode is being driven by safety considerations. Vehicle Modeling by Subsystems Computer simulations have become very popular in the automotive industry. Newer, lower-cost membrane development activities have been funded in recent years, and although the results of such. The response of the Partnership was as follows:23. Taylor, J. Technical Assessment of Cryo-Compressed Hydrogen Storage Tank Systems for Automotive Applications. Each transit car’s electrical system is a subsystem of the subway system. Recommendation 3-16. In addition, as new power plants with alternative energy carriers are developed, produced, and introduced into the market, there will be a significant time delay associated with their market penetration. Although less efficient than motors currently used in. Engine can produce more power if it runs at high RPMs. As the four stroke engine is most commonly employed in modern automobiles, most information here will be derived from and apply to it. The following activities are being undertaken: ANL: This activity uses metal (copper or nickel) foil coated with thin film Pb-La-Zr-Ti-oxide (PLZT) dielectrics. High-Temperature Capacitors. The budget was increased from $24.4 million in FY 2006 to $40.8 million in FY 2007, with a significant increase primarily for PHEV batteries. Demonstrated a dielectric constant of 6.2 with a breakdown field of 10 MV/cm. 2009. Recommendation 3-23. Based on the Simulink for System and Algorithm Modeling outline, this course is for automotive engineers who are new to system and algorithm modeling and teaches attendees how to validate designs using Simulink ®.Topics include: Creating and modifying Simulink models and simulating system dynamics; Modeling continuous-time, discrete-time, and hybrid systems The technical team has had difficulty specifically addressing its cost target. Recommendation 3-12. Power plant of a vehicle can be of the following types: Power is produced by the engine and transferred to the wheels to propel the vehicle. Those advancements would be beneficial and could be applied to any of the four alternative traction systems. An additional 50 percent weight savings of 115 lbs may be possible from downsizing brakes, suspension, engine, power train, and wheels and tires. Although the results are encouraging, the same conclusion that was reached in the Phase 2 review (NRC, 2008) still holds: the cost projections are highly dependent on many unknowns and must have greater resolution in the forthcoming period. The objective in designing new magnetic materials is to reduce two sources of loss, known as (1) hysteresis and (2) eddy current. Although the BES mandate on energy storage is broader and longer term, it works in close coordination with the VT program to advance the energy storage needs for automotive applications. The hydrogen storage capacity of tanks is performance limiting for some vehicle architectures, but hydrogen storage overall is not a, TABLE 3-2 Centers of Excellence (COEs) Project Focus and Participating Organizations, Center of Excellence on Chemical Hydrogen Storage. This field test included data analysis by NREL and SRNL through a collaborative research and development agreement (CRADA). “Development, Test and Demonstration of a Cost-Effective, Compact, Light-Weight, and Scalable High Temperature Inverter for HEVs, PHEVs, and FCVs.” DOE Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 21. In addition, improvements in the aftertreatment systems, particularly lean NOx systems, will be a critical component of meeting the technical team’s targets. The motor is a permanent magnet brushless motor with 2 poles, thus requiring switching devices operating at a minimum of 2,750 hertz (Hz). The prime mover for the propulsion system can be an engine, engine-driven generator, battery, or fuel cell, depending on the energy source.

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